Why are the processes in PMBOK numbered from 4 onwards?

The processes in PMBOK are numbered from 4 onwards because chapters 1,2,3 contains the topics given below.

  • The standard for project management
  • The standard for portfolio management
  • The standard for program management
  • Code of ethics and professional conduct
  • Projects
  • Project initiation context
  • Projects, programs, portfolio and operations management
  • Organizational project management and strategies
  • Structure of PMBOK
  • Project and development lifecycles
  • Project phase
  • Phase gate
  • Project management processes
  • Project management process groups
  • Project management knowledge areas
  • Project management data and information
  • Tailoring
  • Project management business documents
  • Project business case
  • Project benefits management plan
  • Project charter and project management plan
  • Project success measures
  • Enterprise environmental factors
  • Organizational process assets
  • Organizational systems
  • Organizational structure types
  • Project management office
  • The role of the project manager
  • Project manager competencies
  • Comparison of Leadership and management
  • Performing integration

Project integration management comes under chapter 4. The first process under this knowledge area ‘Develop project charter’ is numbered at 4.1.

Project stakeholder management

If we can maintain the project stakeholders satisfied throughout the project, then the project is successful. The first step towards this is aggressive stakeholder identification and stakeholder’s expectation management. The positive expectations must be maximized where as the negative expectations must be minimized. While the stakeholder register will vary across projects, the following list contains the most common project stakeholders;

  • The sponsor (the entities funding the project)
  • Project managers (Owner’s PM, Contractor’s PM, Consultant’s PM, Discipline wise PMs)
  • Program managers (If the project under consideration is part of a program)
  • Portfolio managers (If the project under consideration is part of a portfolio)
  • Project management office (PMOs)
  • Consultants
  • Team members
  • Supervisors
  • Equipment manufacturers / Suppliers
  • Procurement management teams
  • Risk management teams
  • Quality management teams
  • Safety department
  • Planning department
  • Competitors
  • Statutory bodies

I am sure that a detailed analysis will extend this list further. If we have to perform a detailed stakeholder analysis, we need to;

  1. Identify the stakeholders
  2. Perform stakeholder analysis
  3. Manage stakeholder engagement in the project

The following two blog post of mine published at  Wrench elaborates these concepts further;

The art of managing project stakeholders – Part 1 

The art of managing project stakeholders – Part 2

 

The output of the stakeholder analysis is the stakeholder classification into the quadrants

stakeholderanalysis

The high power / low interest category of stakeholders must be kept informed about the project progress using a milestone chart (summary level information). The high power / high interest category of stakeholders must get more detailed view of the project at frequent intervals in the form of   Milestone charts, High level schedules, Risk rating matrix, Project ‘S’ Curves etc. The Low power / Low interest category can be ignored. The Low power, High interest category must receive the project progress details at a frequency which will ensure their interest in the project. Very often, the low power – high interest category is very powerful as a segment. For example :- The product review bloggers. They are the opinion leaders, and they must be proactively managed.

Summary

Stakeholder engagement is one of the critical success factors for every project. Project managers must proactively plan for effective stakeholder identification and management throughout the project. Since stakeholders power is directly linked to their organizational structure (functional, strong matrix, weak matrix, balanced matrix, projectized, composite), a proper study of the stakeholder’s positions, and their organizational structures will help in better project risk management and communications management.

pmp_kochi_kerala_india

 

 

Why traditional project success criteria are still relevant today?

During one of my training programs, a project manager said ‘I am not getting acceptance for my project. What should I do get the acceptance?’. That was a difficult question to answer, considering the fact that I did not know much about his project. Still I wanted to give it a try, and I asked more questions about the probable causes that are acting in favor of project acceptance and the ones acting against project acceptance, just to understand the context better, before trying to help him out, if possible.
The key factors favoring his project’s acceptance

  • The project leadership team, especially the CEO is committed to the project
  • The product quality is excellent.
  • Capability of the team is good.

The key factors opposing his project’s acceptance

  • Organizational politics
  • Fear of loss of job
  • Trade union involvement …

Luckily I asked him about the ‘acceptance criteria’ of the project, which he, his team and all the key stakeholders were trying to achieve, and unfortunately it was not available. Further research reveals that, this is a major problem in many projects. The perception of success varies from project to project, and from stakeholder to stakeholder. There is no agreed upon success criteria for most of the projects, and it is a global project management problem or opportunity!.

Click here for the original blog post

Courtesy : http://www.wrenchsolutions.com

Stakeholder analysis to identify key performance indicators of project success

Step#1 Identify the stakeholders of the project / product  (sample list below)

  • Sponsors
  • Portfolio managers
  • Program managers
  • Project managers
  • Owners
  • Engineering mangers / teams
  • Design teams
  • Sub contractors
  • Procurement team
  • Quality team
  • Risk management team
  • Change management team
  • Safety management team
  • Cost controllers
  • Finance
  • Sales & Marketing
  • Project management office
  • Competitors
  • Consultants
  • End users
  • Government agencies
  • Industry bodies
  • Environment safety
  • Quantity surveyors
  • Competitors   etc..

2. Classify them into the segments of;

  1. High power, High interest
  2. High power, Low interest
  3. Low power, High interest
  4. Low power, Low interest

 

3. Identify the key parameters they would like to track towards meeting the project goals of their interest.

The following diagram depicts a stakeholder classification and the probable project parameters they would like to track

BCG for project health

 

Evolution of ‘project success criteria’

During one of my training programs, a project manager said ‘ I am not getting acceptance for my project. What should I do get the acceptance?’. That was a difficult question to answer, considering the fact that I did not know much about his project. Still I wanted to give it a try, and I asked more questions about the probable causes that are acting in favor of project acceptance and the ones acting against project acceptance, just to understand the context better, before trying to help him out, if possible.

The key factors favoring his project’s acceptance

  • The project leadership team, especially the CEO is committed to the project
  • The product quality is excellent
  • Capability of the team is good

The key factors opposing his project’s acceptance

  • Organizational politics
  • Fear of loss of job
  • Trade union involvement …

Luckily I asked him about the ‘acceptance criteria’ of the project, which he, his team and all the key stakeholders were trying to achieve, and unfortunately it was not available. Further research reveals that, this is a major problem in many projects. The perception of success varies from project to project, and from stakeholder to stakeholder. There is no agreed upon success criteria for most of the projects, and it is a global project management problem or opportunity!.

  • Who has the right to declare success?
  • What are the criteria that will be used to determine success or failure?

Answers to these questions are critical to every project’s success, irrespective of the contract types used.

The definition of ‘project’s success’ is continuously evolving; 

1960 – Technical terms (If the product of the project is working fine, then the project is successful)

1970 – Time, Cost, Quality (Triple constraints)

1980 – Accepted by the customer

1990 – Still more criteria

(Harold Kerzner 2000)

Here is the Project Management Institute’s view of project success as per the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Version6), Released in the year 2018 ;

“Traditionally, the project management metrics of time, cost, scope, and quality have been the most important factors in defining the success of a project. More recently, practitioners and scholars have determined that project success should also be measured with consideration toward achievement of the project objectives.”  Ref  Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) Version 6 

That is a radical shift in the definition of the success criteria of projects. Till recently, the industry believed that a project is successful if it is completed within the agreed upon time, cost and met it’s scope with required quality. As per this definition, the project’s management need not really worry about meeting the end goals of the project.

Kochi metro rail  is a project which got over on time, within the acceptable budget and met the scope with the required quality. Till last year, I believed that it’s project management is extremely successful. Did it meet it’s objectives?. I am doubtful. Since I do not know the pay back period, I am not sure. Did it ease the traffic congestion, “no”, it did not. From that perspective I may have to change my view from ‘success’ to ‘failure’ for this project. And the project manager is accountable.

As we all know, every project delivers unique product or services as it’s output (PMBOK). Based on this, the project success criteria  can be further divided into;

  • Project management success  – Time, Cost, Scope, Quality
  • Product’s success (Effect of the project’s final product)  (Baccarini 1999)

Project Success

Going by the latest view of PMBOK, project is successful if it is completed within the agreed upon time, cost, met it’s scope with required quality  and the benefits forecast used for justifying the project’s initiation is accomplished. The first part (project management success) is accomplished through professional project and program management, where as the product’s success is ensured through project portfolio management and project management combined.

Best practices :

  • Opportunity planning
  • Success criteria document
  • Monitoring stakeholder engagement

In my next blog post, I will elaborate the steps to develop, deploy and maintain the ‘success criteria document’ 

Courtesy : Wrench Solutions 

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How to define project goals – 10 questions one should answer

Whether it is about starting a new blog or building a new airport, before starting the project one has to get convinced about the business case and the viability of the project. Projects fail at the beginning, not at the end. Filtering out the best before investment is the key to avoid failures.

Before starting any new project seek answers to the following 10 questions ;

  1. What is the goal of the project?. Why are we doing it?. What is the problem or opportunity it is trying to address?.
  2. How much it is going to cost by way of money / effort?. This must include both the development cost and the maintenance cost (life cycle cost).
  3. What are the other alternatives to accomplish the same goal. Why are we not considering them? (Alternatives analysis).
  4. Has anyone done a similar project in the past?. Are there any learning from them?
  5. Have you done a cash flow analysis for the project?
  6. How much time is needed to get the initial investment out of the project? (Payback period)
  7. Who all are the key stakeholders of the project?. How are they going to benefit?. What are their roles and responsibilities towards the successfull completion of the project?
  8. What are the major risks?
  9. What are the major assumptions we are making?. Are they validated?
  10. What are the major milestones of the project and the tentative dates? (milestone list, road map)